भारतीय स्वतंत्रता के प्रथम संग्राम का घटनाक्रम

यहाँ भारतीय स्वतंत्रता के प्रथम संग्राम की प्रमुख घटनाएँ एवं उनकी तिथियाँ दी गयीं हैं।

कालक्रम

1857

१८५७ की घटनाएँ
तिथिघटना
26 फरवरीबहरामपुर के १९वीं इन्फैन्ट्री के सिपाहियों ने रायफल चलाने का अभ्यास करने से मना कर दिया।
29 मार्चAt Barrackpore, in Bengal, Mangal Pandey wounds two British mutiny of 34th Native Infantry
31 March19th Native Infantry disbanded .
8 अप्रैलमंगल पाण्डे को फांसी दी गयी
24 AprilTroopers of the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry at Meerut refuse orders to fire greased cartridges
2 MayUnrest at Ambala, 48th Mutiny at Lucknow
6 MayPart of the 34th Native Infantry disbanded at Barrackpore
8 MayTroops of the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry found guilty by court-martial and given severe sentences
10 MayMutiny and Murders at Meerut, troops head towards Delhi
11 MayEuropeans, and Christians slaughtered in Delhi
13 MayBahadur Shah II proclaimed new Mughal emperor. British disarm the garrison at Lahore
17 MayDelhi Field Force, under George Anson, advances from Ambala
22 MayPeshawar garrison disarmed
20-23 MayPart of 9th Native Infantry mutiny at Agra
27 MayAnson dies of cholera;replaced by Major-General Sir Henry Barnard
30 MayMutinies at Muttra and Lucknow
31 MayRohilkhand and Bhurtpore Army mutinies
5 JuneCawnpore 2nd Cavalry Mutinies
6 JuneCawnpore Siege begins, Mutiny at Allahabad
7 JuneWilson and Barnard meet at Alipur
8 JuneBattle of Badli-ki-Serai; Massacre at Jhansi
11 JuneLucknow Police rebel; Neill arrives at Allahabad
25 JuneNana Sahib offers terms at Cawnpore
27 JuneSatichaura Ghat Massacre at Cawnpore
30 JuneBritish defeat at Chinhat; Lucknow Residency besieged
1 Julyइन्दौर में विद्रोह
2 JulyArrival of Bakht Khan at Delhi
4 JulySir Henry Lawrence dies at Lucknow
5 JulyGeneral Barnard dies of cholera;Major-General Thomas Reed succeeds as commander of the Delhi Field Force
7 JulyHavelock’s force leaves for Cawnpore
12 JulyBrigadier-General Sir Henry Havelock defeats rebels at Fatehpur, en route to Cawnpore
15 JulyMassacre of women and children in the Bibighar at Cawnpore.
15 JulyHavelock defeats rebels at Aong and Pandu Nadi, near Cawnpore.
16 JulyNana Sahib defeated in first battle for Cawnpore
17 JulySir Archdale Wilson replaces the ailing Reed as commander of the Delhi Field Force
27 JulySiege of Arrah starts
29 JulyHavelock’s victory at Unao
30 JulyFirst relief of Arrah fails
31 JulyLord Canning issues his controversial ‘Clemency’ resolution, by which he advises against the execution of mutineers not convicted of murder
3 AugustSiege of Arrah ends after action by Major Vincent Eyre
5 AugustHavelock’s victory at Bashiratganj
13 AugustHavelock withdrawal to Cawnpore ;Colin Campbell, Anson’s successor as Commander-in-Chief of India,arrives at Calcutta
14 AugustJohn Nicholson arrives at Delhi Ridge
16 AugustHavelock victory at Bithur
17 AugustMajor William Hobson defeats a large body of rebel cavalry near Rohtak
4 SeptemberSiege train, proceeding from Punjab, arrives in the British camp outside Delhi
5 SeptemberSir James Outram’s arrival at Cawnpore
14 SeptemberWilson’s assault on Delhi begins, Nicholson wounded
19 SeptemberHavelock and Outram march to Lucknow
20 SeptemberDelhi captured and cleared of rebel troops
21 SeptemberWilliam Hodson captures King of Delhi
22 SeptemberHodson executes Mughal princes
23 SeptemberNicholson dies of wounds
25 SeptemberFirst relief of Lucknow
10 OctoberAgra mutineers defeated
9 NovemberKavanagh escapes from Lucknow
14-17 NovemberSecond relief of Lucknow by Campbell
19 NovemberWomen and children evacuated from Lucknow
22 NovemberBritish withdraw from Lucknow
24 NovemberHavelock dies of dysentery
26-28 NovemberWindham defeated at second battle of Cawnpore
28-30 NovemberCampbell reaches Cawnpore to join Windham
6 DecemberTantia Tope defeated at third battle of Cawnpore
Sources: www.britishempire.co.uk and Saul David, The Indian Mutiny

1858

१८५८ की घटनाएँ
तिथिघटना
6 JanuaryCampbell reoccupies Fategarh
16 JanuaryHugh Rose begins campaign in central India
FebruaryCampbell opens separate campaign for reconquest of Oudh
3 FebruaryRose relieves Saugor after a seven-month siege
2 MarchCampbell returns to Lucknow
21 MarchLast rebels removed from Lucknow
1 AprilDividing his force,Rose defeats a numerically superior army under Tatya Tope on the river Betwa
3 AprilJhansi captured and sacked
15 AprilWalpole defeated at Ruiya
23 AprilRose enters Kalpi
5 MayCampbell victory at Bareilly
7 MayRose defeats large force under Tantia Topi and the Rani of Jhansi at Kutch
22 MayRose wins at Kalpi;end of operations in Rohilkhand; start of guerrilla warfare
28 MayRao Sahib, Tantia Topi, the Rani of ]hansi and the Nawab of Banda enter Gwalior State with the remnants of their force and seize Gwalior on 1 June
5 JuneDeath of the Maulvi
12 JuneJames Hope Grant wins at Nawabganj in the final decisive battle in Oudh
17 JuneBattle of Kotah-ki-Serai, death of Rani of Jhansi
19 JuneBattle of Gwalior
2 AugustQueen Victoria approves bill transferring administration of India from the East India Companyto the Crown
1 NovemberRoyal Proclamation replacing East India Company with British Government and offering unconditional pardon to all not involved in murder or the protection of murderers
Source: www.britishempire.co.uk

1859

Events of 1859
DateEvent
4 JanuaryVarious Oudh leaders, including Nana Sahib, forced into the Nepal Terai by Hope Grant
7 JanuaryOperations in Oudh declared officially over.
29 MarchBahadur Shah found guilty
7 AprilTatya Tope betrayed to the British,
18 AprilTatya Tope executed.
8 JulyPeace officially declared.[1][2]
Source: www.britishempire.co.uk

इन्हें भी पढ़ें

Fremont-Barnes, Gregory (2007). The Indian Mutiny 1857-58. Osprey Publishing. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 1-84603-209-1.

सन्दर्भ

  1.  Prichard, Iltudus Thomas (1869). The Administration of India from 1859-1868: The First Ten Years of Administration Under the Crown. London: Macmillan & Co.
  2.  Buckland, Charles Edward (1901). Bengal under the lieutenant-governors (v.01): being a narrative of the principal events and public measures during their periods of office, from 1854-1898. Calcutta: S K Lahiri.

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